What is Abnormal Sperms: When semen has less of mature normal sperms & more of abnormal sperms this condition is abnormal. When ever there is less of normal sperm then chances of spontaneous pregnancy decreases (i.e. difficulty in conceiving i.e. wife does not becomes pregnant). This is one of the common causes of male factor infertility. This is also one of the most common semen abnormalities in men.
How sperms develop: When boy becomes of 14 years of age then L.H. & F.S.H. hormone secretion from pituitary increases. The rise in these hormones leads to proliferation of sperm forming cells (Germ Cells) in the testis. These germ cells start multiplying under the effect of above-mentioned pituitary genital hormones along with assistance of other hormones as testosterones, Growth hormones, Androstenidione, insulin like growth factor-I, Thyroids hormone, paracrine hormone & growth factors. Under the control of above-mentioned hormones germs cells divide & transformed into primary spermatocytes. Then further maturation of primary spermatocytes to spermatids & then finally into mature spermatozoa (i.e. normal sperms) occurs under the control of above-mentioned hormones. After few weeks of progressive maturation inside the testis these sperms become normally motile & develop the capacity to fertilize the ovum. This total sperm cycle from first stage to final stage of normal mature sperms is of three months. Any hindrance in the development of these spermatozoa will lead to abnormal sperms,less count of sperm & decreased motility, immotile or even dead sperms.
Causes of abnormal sperm: The various causes of abnormal sperms are as follows:
1) Deficiency of central sperm producing hormones:
Hypothalamic – pituitary deficiency: Idiopathic GnRH deficiency, Kallman syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Laurence-Moon-Biedl syndrome, Hypothalamic deficiency, pituitary hypoplasia, Trauma, post surgical, postiradiation, Tumour (Adenoma, craniopharyngioma, other), Vascular (pituitary infraction, carotid aneurysm), Infiltrative (Sarcoidosis, histiocytosis, hemochromatosis) Autoimmune hypophysitis, Drugs (drug-induced hyperprolactinemia, genitalsteroids use)
Untreated endocrinopathies, Glucocorticoid excess, Hypopituitarism, Isolated gonadotropin deficiency (non acquired): Pituitary, Hypothalamic, Associated with multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies: Idiopathic pan hypo pituitarism (hypothalamic defects), Pituitary dysgenesis, Space-occupying lesions (craniopharyngioma, Rathke pouch cysts, hypothalamic tumors, pituitary adenomas), , Laurence-Moon-Beidl syndrome Prader-Willi syndrome , Frohlich syndrome, Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism : Klinefelter syndrome, Noonan syndrome, Viral orchitis, Cytotxic drugs, Testicular irradiation.
2) Testicular disorders (primary leydig cell dysfunction i.e. Hypoganadism), Chromosomal (Klinefelter syndrome and variants, XX male gonadal dysgenesis), Defects in androgen biosynthesis, Orchitis (mumps, HIV, other viral, ),Myotonia dystrophica, Toxins (alcohol, opiates, fungicides, insecticides, heavy metals, cotton seed oil), Drugs (cytotoxic drugs, ketoconazole, cimetidine, spironolactone),
3) Partial obstruction in outflow tract from testis to penile pening in epididymis or of vas deferens (cystic fibrosis, diethlstibesterol exposure) also called obstructive oligospermia.
4) Varicocele: varicocele is dilatation of scrotal vein in the scrotum that leads to rise in temperature of testis and raise testicular temperature, resulting in less sperm production & death of whatever sperms are produced.
5) Drugs (e.g. spironolactone, ketoconazole, cyclophosphamide, estrogen administration, sulfasalazine)
6) Autoimmunity i.e. presence of Antisperm antibody. These Antisperm antibodies bind with spems & either make them less motile, totally imotile or even dead which is called necrospermia.
7) Undescended testicle (cryptorchidism). Undescended testis is a condition when one or both testicles fail to descend from the abdomen into the lower part of scrotum during fetal development. Undescended testicles can lead to less sperm production. Because the testicles temperature increase due to the higher internal body temperature compared to the temperature in the scrotum, sperm production may be affected.
8) Mosaic Klinefelter's syndrome. In this disorder of the genital chromosomes, of the man is abnormal. This causes abnormal development of the testicles, resulting in low sperm production. Testosterone production may be low or normal.
9) Viral orchits as mumps or other viral infections.
10) Infections as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis involving testis or surrounding structures as epididymis.
11) Chronic systemic diseases as Liver diseases, Renal failure, Sickle cell disease, Celiac disease
12) Neurological disease as myotonic dystrophy
13) Development and structural defects as mild degree of Germinal cell hypo-plasia
14) Partial Androgen resistance
15) Mycoplasmal infection
16) Partial Immotile cilia syndrome
17) Partial Spermatogenic arrest due to interruption of the complex process of germ cell diffrentation from spermatid level to the formation of mature spermatozoa results in decreased sperm count i.e. oligospermia. Its diagnosis is made by testicular biopsy. This is found in upto 30% of all cases of low sperm count patients.
18) Heat Exposure to testis: as febrile illness or exposure to hot ambience induces a abnormality in spermatogenesis.
19) Infection – as bacterial epididimo-orchitis, even in prostatis spermatogenic defect have been noted.
20) Hyper-thermia due to cryptorchidism
21) Chromosomal abnormality: has been found in many cases of low sperm count
22) Alcohol use, Cocaine or heavy marijuana use or Tobacco smoking may lower sperm count
23) Anti-sperm antibodies. In some people there occurs development of some abnormal blood proteins called anti-sperm antibodies which binds with sperm and make them either immotile or dead or decrease their count.
24) Infections. Infection of urogenital tract may affect sperm production. Repeated bouts of infections are one of the common causes associated with male infertility.
25) Klinefelter's syndrome. In this disorder of the genital chromosomes, a man has two X chromosomes and one Y chromosome instead of one X and one Y. This causes abnormal development of the testicles, resulting in low or absent sperm production. Testosterone production also may be lower.
26) Trauma to testis
27) Environmental toxins: as Pesticides and other chemicals in food or as ayurvedic medicines.
28) Genetic Factors : as idiopathic partial hypo-gonadotropic hypogonadism
Diagnosis of Cause of Abnormal Sperms
For correct diagnosis of cause of abnormal sperms, we need detail history & physical examinations then certain relevant investigations are required.
History & Physical Examinations: First step in proper treatment is accurate diagnosis of cause of abnormal sperms. So we first try to find out cause. We take detailed history, thorough drug history and general physical examination, examination of testis, epididymis, testicular veins & sperm carrying duct examinations. These examinations give idea about whether testis is normally developed or not & how is its function. After that depending on likelihood of particular, cause relevant tests are done. All testing facilities are available at our centre. Thus you may consult us at our centre & at same time you may get all tests done. The time taken in getting all the reports ready is 36 hours. So if you are from out of Delhi, you may come here for two days.
Investigation & Diagnosis: For completes diagnosis of causes of abnormal sperms one or more of the following tests may be required as
1) Complete male hormone profile: This profile includes all the male hormone tests which control testicular development, functions including normal sperm Productions. The tests include L.H., F.S.H., Testosterones, prolactins, thyroids test, & other relevant hormone tests depending on history & examinations.
2) Antisperm antibody
3) USG or Doppler study of scrotum & testis
4) Semen culture sensitivity
5) Semen fructose
6) Immunobead test
7) Sperm Function Tests
8) Human Sperm-Zona Pellucida Binding Ratio
9) Human Sperm-Zona Pellucida Pentration test
10) Genetic Studies
11) FNAC Testis
12) Egg penetration test
13) Molecular genetic studies done in some special cases
14) Chromosome analysis i.e. Karyotype
15) Assessment of androgen receptor
16) Combined Pituitary hormone tests is performed when needed
17) MRI head if pituitary hormone defect suspected
18) Hemogram test for systemic diseases.
19) Sperm Function Tests
The hamster egg penetration assay (HEPA) and the hemizona assay (HZA) are sperm function tests which can help assess the ability of sperm to penetrate the egg. These tests will not definitively tell whether a pregnancy will occur, but an abnormal test result helps predict reduced fertilizing capability. These tests are performed only rarely today.
20) Semen Fructose
At our center facility for all the above tests are available.
Treatment: Once the cause of abnormal sperms are found then with in three months of treatment sperm structure & motility becomes normal in more than 90% cases.
Understanding of Abnormal Sperms by Modern Medicine fails to impress most patients. Only AYURVEDIC MEDICINES HAVE PERMANENT CURE FOR Abnormal Sperms.WE AT Dr.S.K.Jain’s Burlington Clinic (P) Ltd Lucknow in valueable guidance of Dr.Saransh Jain Have Permanent Cure.
A varicocele is an abnormal tortuosity and dilation of veins of within the scrotum. It can be surgically treated - which might help fertility in some cases.
Response of treatment: When we start treatment, maturation of spermatocyte to mature spermatozoa start occurring in three to 4 weeks time and achievement of normal sperm count with normal sperms is achieved in three months. Thus cure rate is achieved in more than 95% of patients in three months time.
Side effects: This treatment is harmless because we prescribe well proven drugs which are prescribed in scientific literature. These medicines have to be purchased from medical store by patient himself.